Whenever possible, the fan wheel should be directly connected to the motor shaft. This can usually be accomplished with small centrifugal fans and with propeller fans up to about 60 in. in diameter. The deflection and the critical speed of the shaft, however, should be investigated to determine whether or not it is safe.
When selecting a motor for fan operation, it is advisable to select a standard motor one size larger than the fan requirements. It should be kept in mind, however, that direct-connected fans do not require as great a safety factor as that of belt-driven units. It is desirable to employ a belt drive when the required fan speed or horsepower is in doubt, since a change in pulley size is relatively inexpensive if an error is made (see Fig. 3-29).
Directly connected small fans for various applications are usually driven by single-phase AC motors of the split-phase, capacitor, or shadedpole type. The capacitor motor is more efficient electrically and is used in districts where there are current limitations. Such motors, however, are usually arranged to operate at one speed. With such a motor, if it is necessary to vary the air volume or pressure of the fan or blower, the throttling of air by a damper installation is usually made.
In large installations (such as when mechanical draft fans are required), various drive methods are used:
? A slip-ring motor to vary the speed.
? Aconstant-speed, directly connected motor, which, by means of moveable guide vanes in the fan inlet, serves to regulate the pressure and air volume.