The two natural forces available for moving air through and out of buildings are wind forces and temperature difference between the inside and the outside. Air movement may be caused by either of these forces acting alone, or by a combination of the two, depending on atmospheric conditions, building design, and location.
In considering the use of natural forces for producing ventilation, the
conditions that must be considered are as follows:
? Average wind velocity
? Prevailing wind direction
? Seasonal and daily variations in wind velocity and direction
? Local wind interference by buildings and other obstructions
When the wind blows without encountering any obstructions to change its direction, the movements of the airstream (as well as the pressure) remain constant. If, on the other hand, the airstream meets an obstruction of any kind (such as a house or ventilator), the airstream will be pushed aside as illustrated in Fig. 3-1. In the case of a simple ventilator (see Fig. 3-2), the closed end forms an obstruction that changes the direction of the wind. The ventilator expands at the closed end and converges at the open end, thus producing a vacuum inside the head, which induces an upward flow of air through the flue and through the head.
Perhaps the best example of the thermal effect is the draft in a stack or chimney known as the flue effect. The flue effect of a stack is produced within a building when the outdoor temperature is lower than the indoor temperature. It is caused by the difference in weight of the warm column of air within the building and the cooler air outside. The flow caused by flue effect is proportional to the square root of the draft head, or approximately.
Combined wind and temperature forces
Note that when wind and temperature forces are acting together, even without interference, the resulting air flow is not equal to the sum of the two estimated quantities. However, the flow through any opening is proportional to the square root of the sum of the heads acting on that opening. When the two heads are equal in value, and the ventilating openings are operated so as to coordinate them, the total airflow through the building is about 10 percent greater than that produced by either head acting independently under ideal conditions. This percentage decreases rapidly as one head increases over the other. The larger head will predominate.
The function of a roof ventilator is to provide a storm and weatherproof air outlet. For maximum flow by induction, the ventilator should be located on that part of the roof where it will receive full wind without interference. Roof ventilators are made in a variety of shapes and styles (Fig. 3-3). Depending on their construction and application, they may be termed as stationary, revolving, turbine, ridge, or syphonage.
Air leakage caused by cold air outside and warm air inside takes place when the building contains cracks or openings at different levels. This results in the cold and heavy air entering at low levels and pushing the warm and light air out at high levels; the same draft takes place in a chimney. When storm sashes are applied to well-fitted windows, very little redirection in infiltration is secured, but the application of the sash does give an air space that reduces heat transmission and helps prevent window frosting. By applying storm sashes to poorly fitted windows, a reduction in leakage of up to 50 percent may be obtained. The effect, insofar as air leakage is concerned, will be roughly equivalent to that obtained by the installation of weather stripping.
Ventilation is produced by two basic methods: natural and mechanical. Natural ventilation is obtained by open windows, vents, or drafts, whereas mechanical ventilation is produced by the use of fans.
Thermal effect is possibly better known as flue effect. Flue effect is the draft in a stack or chimney that is produced within a building when the outdoor temperature is lower than the indoor temperature. This is caused by the difference in weight of the warm column of air within the building and the cooler air outside.
Air may be filtered by two ways: dry filtering and wet filtering. Various air-cleaning equipments (such as filtering, washing, or combined filtering and washing devices) are used to purify the air. When designing the duct network, ample filter area must be included so that the air velocity passing through the filters is sufficient. Accuracy in estimating the resistance to the flow of air through the duct system is important in the selection of blower motors. Resistance should be kept as low as possible in the interest of economy. Ducts should be installed as short as possible.
The effect of dust on health has been properly emphasized by competent medical authorities. Air-conditioning apparatus removes these contaminants from the air and further provides the correct amount of moisture so that the respiratory tracts are not dehydrated, but are kept properly moist. Dust is more than just dry dirt. It is a complex, variable mixture of materials and, as a whole, is rather uninviting, especially the type found in and around human habitation. Dust contains fine particles of sand, soot, earth, rust, fiber, animal and vegetable refuse, hair, and chemicals.
Humidifiers add moisture to dry air. The types of humidifiers used in air-conditioning systems are spray-type air washers, pan evaporative, electrically operated, and air operated.
The function of an air washer is to cool the air and to control humidity. An air washer usually consists of a row of spray nozzles and a chamber or tank at the bottom that collects the water as it falls through the air contacting many baffles. Air passing over the baffles picks up the required amount of humidity.
Dehumidification is the removal of moisture from the air and is accomplished by two methods: cooling and adsorption. Cooling-type dehumidification operates on the refrigeration principle. It removes moisture from the air by passing the air over a cooling coil. The moisture in the air condenses to form water, which then runs off the coil into a collecting tray or bucket.
Ventilation is the process of supplying or removing air to or from any building or space. Such air may or may not have been conditioned. Methods of supplying or removing the air are accomplished by natural ventilation and mechanical methods. The treatment of air, both inside and out is very important in any ventilation system.
Troubleshooting procedures for the Lennox Pulse furnaces are shown in Fig. 2-20. Figure 2-21 shows the circuitry for the G-14Q series of furnaces. Note the difference in the electrical circuitry for the G-14 and GSR-14. Blower speed color-coded wires are also indicated for the different units. The 40, 60, 80, and 100 after the G-14Q indicates whether it is a 40,000, 60,000, 80,000, or 100,000 Btu/h unit. Thermostat heat anticipation is also given for the Robertshaw valve and the Rodgers valve. This type of electrical diagram is usually glued to the cabinet so that it is with the unit whenever there is need for troubleshooting.
The troubleshooting flow chart is typical of those furnished with newer equipment in the technical manuals furnished the dealers who provide the service. After locating the exact symptoms, check with the other part of Fig. 2-20 to find how to use the multimeter to check out all the circuitry to see if the exact cause of the problem can be determined.
The process of pulse combustion begins as gas and air are introduced into the sealed combustion chamber with the spark plug igniter. Spark from the plug ignites the gas-air mixture, which in turn causes a positive pressure buildup that closes the gas and air inlets. This pressure relieves itself by forcing the products of combustion out of the combustion chamber through the tailpipe into the heat-exchanger exhaust decoupler and into the heat-exchanger coil. As the combustion chamber empties, its pressure becomes negative, drawing in air and gas for ignition of the next pulse. At the same instant, part of the pressure pulse is reflected back from the tailpipe at the top of the combustion chamber. The flame remnants of the previous pulse of combustion ignite the new gas-air mixture in the chamber, continuing the cycle.
Once combustion is started, it feeds on itself, allowing the purge blower and spark igniter to be turned off. Each pulse of gas-air mixture is ignited at the rate of 60 to 70 times per second, producing 1/4 to 1/2 Btu per pulse of combustion. Almost complete combustion occurs with each pulse. The force of these series of ignitions creates great turbulence, which forces the products of combustion through the entire heatexchanger assembly, resulting in maximum heat transfer (see Fig. 2-18).
Start-up procedures for the GSR-14Q series of Lennox Pulse furnaces, as well as maintenance and repair parts, are shown in Fig. 2-19.
On a demand for heat, the room thermostat initiates the purge blower operation for a prepurge cycle of 34 s, followed by energizing of the ignition and opening of the gas valve. As ignition occurs the flame sensor senses proof of ignition and deenergizes the spark igniter and purge blower (see Fig. 2-18). The furnace blower operation is initiated 30 to 45 s after combustion ignition. When the thermostat is satisfied, the gas valve closes and the purge blower is reenergized for a postpurge cycle of 34 s. The furnace blower remains in operation until the preset temperature setting [90°F (32°C)] of the fan control is reached. Should the loss of flame occur before the thermostat is satisfied, flame sensor controls will initiate three to five attempts at reignition before locking out the unit operation. In addition, loss of either combustion intake air or flue exhaust will automatically shut down the system.
The furnace is equipped with a standard-type redundant gas valve in series with a gas expansion tank, gas intake flapper valve, and air intake flapper valve. Also factory installed are a purge blower, spark plug igniter and flame sensor with solid-state control circuit board. The standard equipment includes a fan and limit control, a 30-VA transformer, blower cooling relay, flexible gas line connector, and four isolation mounting pads, as well as a base insulation pad, condensate drip leg, and cleanable air filter. Flue vent/air intake line, roof or wall termination installation kits, LPG conversion kits, and thermostat are available as accessories and must be ordered extra, or you can use the existing one when replacing a unit.
The printed circuit board is replaceable as a unit when there is a malfunction of one of the components. It uses a multivibrator transistorized circuit to generate the high voltages needed for the spark plug. The spark plug gets very little use except to start the combustion process. It has a long life expectancy. Spark gap is 0.115 in. and the ground electrode is adjusted to 45° (see Fig. 2-20).
The high-efficiency furnaces achieve that level of fuel conversion by using a unique heat-exchanger design. It features a finned cast-iron combustion chamber, temperature-resistant steel tailpipe, aluminized steel exhaust decoupler section, and a finned stainless-steel tube condenser coil similar to an air-conditioner coil. Moisture, in the products of combustion, is condensed in the coil, thus wringing almost every usable Btu out of the gas. Since most of the combustion heat is utilized in the heat transfer from the coil, flue vent temperatures are as low as 100 to 130°F (38 to 54°C), allowing for the use of 2-in.-diameter polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe. The furnace is vented through a side wall or roof or to the top of an existing chimney with up to 25 ft of PVC pipe and four 90° elbows. Condensate created in the coil may be disposed of in an indoor drain (see Fig. 2-17). The condensate is not harmful to standard household plumbing and can be drained into city sewers and septic tanks without damage.
The furnace has no pilot light or burners. An automotive-type spark plug is used for ignition on the initial cycle only, saving gas and electrical energy. Due to the pulse-combustion principle, the use of atmospheric gas burners is eliminated, with the combustion process confined to the heat-exchanger combustion chamber. The sealed combustion system virtually eliminates the loss of conditioned air due to combustion and stack dilution. Combustion air from the outside is piped to the furnace with the same type of PVC pipe used for exhaust gases.
Furnaces have been designed (since 1981) with efficiencies of up to 97 percent, as compared to older types with efficiencies in the 60 percent range. The Lennox Pulse is one example of the types available. The G14 series pulse combustion up-flow gas furnace provides efficiency of up to 97 percent. Eight models for natural gas and LPG are available with input capacities of 40,000, 60,000, 80,000, and 100,000 Btu/h. The units operate on the pulse-combustion principle and do not require a pilot burner, main burners, conventional flue, or chimney. Compact, standard-sized cabinet design, with side or bottom return air entry, permits installation in a basement, utility room, or closet. Evaporator coils may be added, as well as electronic air cleaners and power humidifiers (see Fig. 2-16).
There are four ways to describe the heat-pump methods of transporting heat into the house:
1. Air to air: This is the most common method. It is the type of system previously described.
2. Air to water: This type uses two different types of heat exchangers. Warmed refrigerant flows through pipes to a heat exchanger in the boiler. Heated water flows into radiators located within the heated space.
3. Water to water: This type uses two water-to-refrigerant heat exchangers. Heat is taken from the water source (well water, lakes, or the sea) and is passed on by the refrigerant to the water used for heating. The reverse takes place in the cooling system.
4. Water to air: Well water furnishes the heat. This warms the refrigerant in the heat-exchanger coil. The refrigerant, compressed, flows to the top of the unit, where a fan blows air past the heat exchanger.
Each type of heat pump has its advantages and disadvantages. Each needs to be properly controlled. This is where the electrical connections and controls are used to do the job properly. Before attempting to work on this type of equipment, make sure you have a complete schematic of the electrical wiring and know all the component parts of the system.